Fritz Perls

Fritz Perls

Il fondatore della Gestalt

terapeuta del “qui e ora”

e dell’esperienza come contatto

“La frattura più profonda, da lungo tempo radicata nella nostra cultura e di conseguenza data per scontata, è la dicotomia mente/corpo: la superstizione che esista una separazione, ancorché una interdipendenza, di due diversi tipi di sostanza, quella mentale e quella fisica.  Noi siamo organismi, noi non abbiamo un organismo. Siamo un’unità integrale, ma abbiamo la libertà di astrarre molti aspetti da questa totalità. A-strarre, non sot-trarre, separare.”

fritz perls 2

Fiedrich Salomon Perls (Berlino, 8 luglio 1893 – Chicago, 14 maggio 1970), psichiatra e psicoterapeuta, è stato allievo di Kurt Goldstein, Karen Horney e Wilhelm Reich, con il quale condivide l’interesse per il corpo. Trasferitosi nel 1934, all’avvento del nazismo, a Johannesburg in Sudafrica, vi fonda l’anno dopo l’Istituto Sudafricano di Psicoanalisi. Qui comincia a elaborare le sue critiche alla psicanalisi freudiana, che svilupperà poi nel suo primo libro L’io, la fame e l’aggressività .

Nel 1946 si tasferisce negli Stati Uniti e cominica a collaborare con Isadore Fromm, Paul Weisz (che lo introduce allo Zen), Elliot Shapiro, Sylvester Eastman, Paul Goodman e Ralf Hefferline: con questi ultimi due pubblica nel 1951Terapia della Gestalt: eccitamento e accrescimento nella personalità umana, testo di riferimento della psicologia gestaltica. Sempre con Goodman e con la moglie Laura apre tra il 1952 e il 1954 diversi centri Gestalt, per poi intraprendere una serie di peregrinazioni che lo portano ad avvicinarsi alla cosiddetta scuola californiana, oltre che in Israele e in Giappone. Nella seconda metà degli anni Sessanta conduce a Esalen, in California, alcuni seminari di grande richiamo, avvicinandosi ad autori come Gregory Bateson, Alexander Lowen, Eric Berne, Abraham Maslow, Aldous Huxley e altri.

Tra le tematiche centrali della psicoterapia della Gestalt – che delle omonima Psicologia della Forma accoglie e rielabora la tematica della figura/sfondo e la teoria del campo – vanno sottolineate la centralità del “qui e ora”, che privilegia la dimensione del presente rispetto al passato nell’indagine clinica e nella terapia, e dell’interazione tra individuo e ambiente; la consapevolezza come premessa alla capacità di autoregolazione dell’organismo; la valorizzazione degli aspetti di realtà e la relazione autentica fra terapeuta e paziente, con l’idea guida di un rapporto terapeutico creativo che rispetta la singolarità di ogni essere umano.

Bibliografia
Tutti i principali testi di Fritz Perls sono stati tradotti in italiano. Eccoli in ordine cronologico di pubblicazione in lingua originale.
L’io, la fame e l’aggressività, Franco Angeli, Milano 1995,  traduzione di Mario Polito e Maria Clelia Fabris da Ego, Hunter and Agression: A Revision of Freud’s Theory and Method, George Allen & Unwin, Londra 1947 (1969);
–, Paul Hefferline, Paul Goodman,  Teoria e pratica della terapia della Gestalt – Vitalità e accrescimento nella personalità umana, Astrolabio, Roma 1997,  traduzione di Jean Sanders e Fernando Liuzzi da Gestalt Theory. Excitement and growth in the human personality, The Julian Press, New York 1951;
La terapia Gestaltica parola per parola, Astrolabio, Roma 1991, traduzione di Bernardo Draghi da Gestalt Therapy Verbatim, Real People Press, Moab, Utah, 1969;
Qui e Ora, Psicoterapia autobiografica, Sovera, Roma 1991,  traduzione di Layla Sabri da Ego, In and Out the Garbage Pail, Real People Press, Moab, Utah, 1969;
L’approccio della Gestalt. Testimone oculare della terapia, Astrolabio, Roma 1977,  traduzione di Jean Sanders da The Gestalt Approach & Eye Witness to Therapy, Science and Behaviour, Books, New York 1973

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